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Samsung SDS, a partial owner of IT solutions maker South Korea Tech Corporation, expects a medical claims processing system this month.

According to a report by CoinDesk Korea on Wednesday, Samsung SDS Vice President Yun Shim said at the 2019 Blockchain Seoul event that the firm has been piloting the system since August this year. Samsung’s SDS owns 22.6 percent of Samsung Electronics and 17.1 percent of Samsung T&T.

Yun added that medical facilities and insurers are taking part in pilots to test efficiencies and the system will be operational soon this month, another local local news report said.

The operating network is designed to streamline the complex process now in which the patient receives a receipt for services rendered and submits documents to the insurance company, who must then confirm their correctness before paying the claims.

The company says that although most Koreans are well insured and do not have to pay, they usually do not file a lawsuit because of the complexity of the trials.

bitcoin value

The new Blockchain Health Network is close to hospitals, pharmacies, insurers and other industry companies. When the system is running, users will be notified of the KakaoTalk message after treatment. You can then click on the recipient button and the insurance claim button, after which their information is sent to the insurer.

Blockchain technology is used to share personal medical information. Samsung’s SDS believes the network will reduce the burden on medical facilities, reduce claims processing time and reduce medical costs by up to 70 percent.

In June, Samsung’s SDS announced that it had already signed up for several major hospitals. The list includes Samsung Hospital, Severne Hospital, and Korea University Medical Center, among other institutions. The company then announced that the new system would be operational in August 2019.

The network is built on Nexledger, an enterprise blockchain platform originally created in 2017. Samsung’s SDS claims that Nexledger is used for 110 blockchain projects and holds 51 patents.

The McDonnell – Douglas MD-80

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The fuselage's stretch capacity, inherently incorporated in the basic design of DC-9, had characterized its program, resulting in larger and divergent versions in four dimensions, including the DC-9-30 initially elongated over the reference series -10/14/15, the later DC-9-40 and the last DC-9-50, the latter with capacity for 49 passengers more than the original maximum of the double jet.

The DC-9, based on the four principles of robustness, simplicity, reliability and low-cost design, had been McDonnell-Douglas's best-selling commercial aircraft, so much so that, in fact, it took off or landed somewhere in the world every seven seconds, which serves more than 570 cities with about 6,050 daily flights, and in 1979, the collective fleet had transported more than one billion passengers and registered more than 18 million hours with a dispatch reliability rate of almost 99 percent.

Its Pratt and Whitney JT8D engine, the most widely used engine with a numbering greater than 12,000 units, had not only provided a thrust thrust for all versions of the DC-9, but also boosted the Boeing 727, the Sud-Aviation SE.210 Super Caravelle, the Boeing 737 and the Dassault-Breguet Mercure 100.

Therefore, both the basic design of the DC-9 and its JT8D turbo fan offered the most optimal and cost-effective platform on which to base a successor of greater capacity, which needed to match the capacity of the DC-9-30 range, but exceed the DC-9 -50 of the economy.

Its fuselage, having not reached its stretch capacity limit, lent itself to a larger capacity housing, but its obstacle had been a power plant of sufficient thrust to maintain a payload, a range and acceptable performance parameters for its operators .

Based on the previous two-stage JT3D, which had fed both 707 and DC-8, the JT8D, a low-bypass, one-to-one turbo fan, was first run on April 7, 1961, arriving at the heavens for the first time on May 1 of the following year he rode a 707. Upon receiving FAA certification on February 9, 1963, as the JT8D-1 of 14,000 pounds of thrust, he had fed the 727-100 before if used by the DC-9 -10 and subsequently offered in several successive versions of greater thrust, the last of which was the JT8D-17R of 17,400 pounds of thrust.

A new generation variant, which provides the application for a definitive DC-9 section designated JT8D-109, had been one of the six demonstration power plants incorporating larger, single-stage fans developed for the Quiet Engine Program. NASA, which ran between 1972 and 1975, and two of its versions had registered more than 50 hours adapted to a modified DC-9-32. The design of a new development, the JT8D-209 of 18,500 pounds of thrust, began in 1974 and was first executed two years later, in a McDonnell-Douglas Advanced Medium STOL Transport (AMST) in March 1977.

Although initially a new supercritical wing had been considered, the aircraft, destined for short to medium-range sectors that implied higher ascent and descent ratios with respect to actual cruise profiles, could not fully exploit such a new design, its benefits resulting unable to justify its higher development costs. The existing DC-9 wing, which incorporates root and tip extensions and high elevation modified devices, would provide the required performance, economy and range parameters.

Several initial iterations, based mainly on the DC-9-50 and all with fuselage stretches for higher capacities, larger area wings and two refined turbofan, had included the ref-stretched DC-9-50RS, the super stretched DC refan -9-50RSS, the DC-9-55 and the DC-9-60, while a DC-9QSF, intended for Japanese operators as a twin turboprop replacement NAMC YS-11, combined a fuselage DC-9- 40 with two JT8D-209 engines of 18,000 pounds of thrust and a larger two-foot wing, allowing the 114,000-pound aircraft to operate from 4,000-foot runways with 120 passengers.

However, the cost limitations and design complexities dictated a simpler and more direct version that incorporated the longer fuselage, the increased area wings and the JT8D-209 turbofans, but maintained the similarity of the cabin with all the previous variants of DC-9. Skipping the DC-9-60 and DC-9-70 sequences, the definitive aircraft, designated DC-9-80-or DC-9 Super 80, to more accurately reflect the planned year of inauguration of the service, was launched in October 20 of 1977 with the reception of 27 firm orders and 13 optional orders from Swissair, Austrian Airlines and Southern Airways, together with a letter of intent from LAV Lineas Aeropostal Venezolanas, all of which had been previous operators of DC-9. Visualized as a complement of greater capacity for its DC-9 fuselage and a replacement for higher-cost tri-jets, it was intended to provide service in mature markets whose environmental and noise restrictions had prevented the replacement of larger capacity equipment, the Aircraft offered lower noise footprint, greater range and capacity, and the lowest seat mile costs of any comparable double jet.

According to the then president of Douglas Aircraft Company, John C. Brizendine, "in recent years … we have realized the need to conserve energy, protect the environment and produce more and more economically efficient airplanes. (DC -9 Super 80) is specifically designed to meet the requirements of our industry for years to come. These include environmental compatibility, energy efficiency, economic operation and a spacious and comfortable interior. "

McDonnell-Douglas boasted the aircraft, "The DC-9 Super 80 is a mix of proven design with available low-risk technology for greater effectiveness, (but) the remarkable DC-9 reliability and lower operating costs are maintained ".

Although it had been based on this twin from the previous generation, it introduced several advanced features.

A stretch of the fuselage, achieved through a plug of eight frames forward of the wing and a single frame insert back, resulted in a total length of 147.10 feet, increasing the maximum capacity to 172, or 33 more than the DC- 9 -50 and an astonishing 82 more than the initial DC-9-10, and producing the most mass-drawn commercial aircraft so far. The front, left and rear, ventral exits had been retained, both equipped with extendable air ladders, but a left, rear service door had been introduced, located just a few feet from the engine. Aeritalia of Naples, Italy, manufactured its fuselage panels.

A new 10.6-foot central section and two-foot parallel rope tip extensions, resulting in the third dimensionally divergent DC-9 wing, produced an area of ​​28 percent, fuel capacity of 57 percent and an increase in 11 percent efficiency.

Measuring 107 feet, 10 1/4 inches, the aerodynamic profile, with a sweep of 24 degrees back in its fourth string, an aspect ratio of 9.62, three degrees of dihedral and an area of ​​1,239 square feet, had been composed by four precision machined wing cladding panels that had been transformed from 14,000-pound ingots measuring 60 inches wide, 15 inches long and 30 inches thick by the Reynolds Metal Company of McCook, Illinois.

The all-metal structure of two stringers, with riveted stringers in the form of a section, featured front edge slats with three full-section positions with a new intermediate configuration to reduce take-off drag and improve ascent performance to higher gross weights; larger, double groove and rear edge fins covering 67 percent of the section and lowering the plane's loss rate; three spoiler panels, the two exteriors of which could be used as flight and ground lift dumpers; and spoilers. All but the latter were hydraulically operated, while the ailerons were manually operated. A vortillon fence under the wing ensured adequate air flow. By providing 1,520 US gallons of additional fuel tank, it also offered a major area main landing gear bay.

The horizontal, electrically operated variable-incidence tail covering 40.2 feet, or 3.6 feet more than that of the DC-9-50, retained the characteristic t-tail configuration of the design and sports elevators equipped with handles, while the vertical fin, With a total aircraft height of 30.2 feet, it had a hydraulically operated rudder. He had been 1.4 feet taller than the DC-9-50.

Its Pratt and Whitney JT8D-209 turbofan, mounted on both sides of the stern fuselage and retaining the original thrust-type inverters, was based on the core of the previous JT8D-9, but introduced a 49-inch wider fan and An advanced, low-pressure compressor, which produces 18,500 pounds of thrust along with an additional 750 pounds of automatic power reserve (APR), generated during engine loss conditions. The fan of a larger diameter stage, which drove a larger mass of hot core section bypass air, along with a more efficient intermingling hot and cold air outlet, and a greater sound absorption material in its gondola and surrounding carcass produced numerous improvements including increased thrust capacity; a higher derivation ratio of 1: 1.78 compared to the previous JT8D 1: 1; lower output speed; an 11 percent decrease in specific fuel consumption; and a significantly smaller noise footprint than the medium-range tri-jets that were intended to be replaced.

Using Kevlar-reinforced aluminum honeycomb reinforcements to reduce weight with graphite ribbon caps on the outer barrel of its nasal cover and its upper and two lower deck doors, the gondola, 21.1 feet long, was 4.5 feet longer than the JT8D-9 and, therefore, presented engineering challenges in relation to its mounting on the body of the DC-9, although longer.

The DC-9 Super 80 retained the Cleveland Pneumatic Retractable, Tricycle, Double Wheel, Hydraulic, Landing Gear equipped with Goodyear wheels, tires and disc brakes; Anti-skid units Hydro-Aire Mk IIIA; and Douglas executed the air brake cooling. The nose wheel was adjustable at 27 degrees on each side.

Although the Super 80 maintained a common pilot type rating with the DC-9, however, it offered several advances in the cockpit, including a digital control and flight guidance system designed by the Sperry Sperry Flight Systems Division Rand Corporation, which integrated the performance of seven flights control subsystems on two identical digital computers; cathode ray tube (CRT) screens; a digital fuel quantity measurement system; a dial-a-flap system; and Category IIIA automatic landing capability of 50 feet of decision height (DH) and 700 feet of visual range on the runway (RVR). An electronic performance management system introduced later provided automatic tilt and thrust to achieve optimum speed and fuel consumption during the ascent, cruise and descent profiles of the aircraft.

The "wide-looking" cabin, 101 feet long, featured a ceiling with a wide, contoured and sculpted acoustic treatment that mixed with the closed upper storage compartments; aluminum side panels sculpted around the windows; fluorescent lighting; a 19-inch hall; and economy class seats set to five, two or three or two, which halved the number of intermediate seats traditionally associated with six-in-one arrangements.

The interior decoration, which varied from a conservative business-oriented event to bright patterns and bright colors, was determined by the operator and designed by McDonnell-Douglas, whose interior design teams often made trips to the countries of origin of the airlines to absorb local culture and customs and then turn that experience into motifs that reflect the area or the country. Synthetic wool and wool blends were used as standard for seat covers and carpets.

Class and seat configuration vary by operator. An agreement of 137 double-class passengers, for example, involved 12 first-class seats with four seats in a 38-inch field and 125 economy-class seats with five seats in a 34-inch field, while class densities The only one included 155 passengers on a 32/33-inch pitch, 167 charter seats on a 30-inch pitch, or a maximum of 172 high-density passengers, the latter with capacity for a single galley installation.

The interior noise reduction was achieved by an insulating Mylar blanket reinforced with fabric on fiberglass.

The elongated DC-9 introduced a new pressurization and air circulation system, which replaced cabin air at higher frequencies, and its potable water system featured in-line heaters in all of its water lines. A higher capacity auxiliary power unit (APU) executed its environmental control system on the ground.

The longer fuselage of the aircraft significantly increased the volume of the luggage compartment and cargo of the lower deck, whose front, center and rear holds, respectively, covered 434, 376 and 443 cubic feet.

The DC-9-80 retained 80 percent of the key maintenance features of the DC-9-50.

Like all of its previous predecessors of shorter fuselage, the aircraft had been designed for short-sector self-service operations and rapid response from short aerodromes of limited facilities, with its greatest thrust, larger area wings, self-contained air ladder, Auxiliary power unit for environmental conditioning and engine starting, low ground profile to facilitate service, loading and maintenance, and the ability to operate two or more sectors without refueling. Most delivery times required little more than luggage carts.

With a maximum structural payload of 40,112 pounds, the DC-9-81, as designated in its initial variant, had a gross weight of 147,000 pounds, although it had then increased to 149,500 pounds with improved engines, and a maximum weight of 128,000-pound landing. Their normal and maximum cruising speeds were, respectively, Mach 0.76 and 0.80. Range, with 155 single class passengers and national reserves, was 1,564 nautical miles.

Piloted by Douglas Chief Engineering Pilot HH "Knick" Knickerbocker, John P. Laine Project Pilot and Virginia "Ginny" Flight Test Engineer A. Claire, the first DC-9 Super 80 and the 909th twin jet in Leaving Long Beach assembly line, he made his first flight from Runway 30 of the Long Beach Municipal Airport on October 18, 1979 with the DACO 80 badge for "Douglas Aircraft Company 80".

Following a 25-mile circular pattern on the water, the long and thin fuselage aircraft, with a capacity for 13,100 pounds of test equipment, completed a successful two-hour and 50-minute basic maneuver test exit before landing at the Facility of Flight Operations of McDonnell-Douglas in Yuma, Arizona, where the Chief of Engineering Pilots concluded: "The ground handling of the Super 80 is even better than the other DC-9s. It also seemed quite stable in flight … The new engines were impeccable, and the reverse thrust was very effective on landing … I think the Super 80 is a great plane and will live up to all our expectations. "

The flight test program of three 1,085-hour and $ 36 million aircraft, which involved the first flights of the N1002G prototype on December 6, 1979 and N1002W on February 29, 1980, led to FAA certification seven months later , on August 26, under an amendment to the original type certificate of DC-9.

First delivered to the Swissair launch client on September 12, which had operated before the DC-9-15, -30 and -50 series, it was inaugurated on scheduled service on October 5 from Zurich to Frankfurt, becoming the commercial aircraft pure more silent. The joint launch customer Austrian Airlines, which had also operated a fleet of DC-9-30 and -50, opened its first revenue service 21 days later, on October 26, from Vienna to Zurich.

To adopt the McDonnell-Douglas designation scheme, the DC-9-80, or DC-9 Super 80, was renamed "MD-80" in 1983, its initial version was called "MD-81".

II

Development of the Pratt and Whitney JT8D-209 base engine, which resulted in additional increased versions of an additional 20,000 pounds of thrust -217, the origin of which was the 1979 requirement for a takeoff and short landing aircraft (STOL) to operate within the Japanese domestic market. An iteration projected at that time, designated DC-9 Super 80SF, would have matched the fuselage of the DC-9-40 with the wing and motors of the DC-9-80, but the higher thrust JT8D-217, applied to the dimensions of the existing fuselage, they have provided most of the desired performance. As a result, a second variant, designated MD-82 and first announced on April 16, 1979, featured improved 20,000-pound turbofans with 850 pounds of automatic power reserve, a payload of 44,024 pounds and a range of 2,050 miles with 155 passengers First flying on January 8, 1981, it received its FAA type certification six months later, on July 31, with a maximum initial takeoff weight of 147,000 pounds, although the 1982 option of the JT8D engines -217A further increased this to 149,500 pounds, which resulted in even higher payload and range capabilities.

Republic Airlines, the July 1, 1978 merger of North Central and Southern Airways, had been the launch client of the version, having been the world's largest DC-9 operator with -10s, -30s and -50s series, a which its eight MD-82s were finally added.

The variant had been involved in two unique programs. The first one, which took place in October 1982, involved the innovative lease of 20 MD-82 to American Airlines, so McDonnell-Douglas agreed to assume maintenance and training costs. This allowed the purchase in February 1984 of 67 aircraft, at attractive prices and with low cancellation penalties, to be delivered in blocks of ten to 25 cells, each of which had been confirmed 24 months before the expected delivery date . Becoming the pillar of American's short-to-medium-range fleet to facilitate downtown connections in Chicago and Dallas, the plane, configured for 142 first-class and economy-class passengers, was finally number 234, the total single type largest in the world outside the former USSR.

The second innovative transaction occurred on April 12, 1985, when the Shanghai Aviation Industrial Corporation agreed to build 25 MD-82 in the People's Republic of China.

An extended range successor, designated MD-83 and first announced on January 31, 1982, introduced even higher engines. The JT8D-219, with a power of 21,000 pounds of thrust, featured a redesigned low-pressure turbine, a new high-pressure turbine, aerodynamically improved profiles, a five percent thrust increase and a two percent reduction in the fuel consumption.

First flying on December 17, 1984, the double jet, with a maximum takeoff weight of 160,000 pounds, offered a range of 2,502 nautical miles, reached through 1,160 US gallons of additional supplementary fuel tanks installed on the deck of the bottom cover. Finnair, which had operated DC-9-14 / 15, -40 and -50, served as the launch client for the version, operating the longest nonstop flight MD-80 on November 14, 1985, when it covered 3,406 miles distance between Montreal and Helsinki in seven hours, 26 minutes. Transwede, from Sweden, opened the first transatlantic flight that generates revenue from Stockholm to Ft. Lauderdale with intermediate stops in Oslo and Gander.

In order to offer a lower capacity counterpart more suitable for reduced demand sectors and compete more effectively with the Boeing 737-300 designed for this market, McDonnell-Douglas offered the first and only dimensionally divergent variant, the MD -87 , which had evolved since its previous studies DC-9 Super XX for a 100 to 120 passenger aircraft powered by the JT8D-200 series of Pratt and Whitney or CFM International CFM56-3 CFM56-3 turbofans and offered between 110,000 and 120,000- Pound gross weight. The variant, with a shorter fuselage of 16.5 feet, had a new total length of 130.5 feet and had a maximum payload of 38,726 pounds, or the same as the DC-9-50.

Due to the decrease in the moment arm of the shorter fuselage, vertical axis control required a larger, ten-inch higher fin, visible by the extension above its traditional T-tail coupling point and giving as resulted in a new total height of 31.2 feet. It also introduced hinges and low resistance flap fairings, a fillet fairing between the fuselage and the engine pylon, and a low-resistance blade-shaped back cover.

Initially powered by the JT8D-217B of 20,000 pounds of thrust, but then adapted with the -217C version of lower fuel consumption, the MD-87 had a range of 2,372 nautical miles with 130 passengers and national reserves, although additional, type fuel MD-83 the tankage in the lower wineries increased this to 2,833 miles.

On December 4, 1986, he first launched into the heavens, received his FAA-type certificate on October 21 of the following year and opened on December 17 with Austrian Airlines from Vienna to Zagreb.

The latest and most advanced of the five versions, the MD-88, reintroduced the original dimensions of the fuselage and was announced on January 23, 1986 after the launching client Delta Air Lines placed an initial order at 80 of the type. Offered with 21,000 JT8D-219 pounds of thrust turbofans, the version, based more closely on the MD-82, featured a larger composite material to reduce the weight of the structure, a new passenger cabin with a wider aisle and storage compartments. Modernized superior storage, and an advanced, glass cabin, the latter composed of an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS), a flight management system (FMS) and an inertial reference system (IRS). It retained the blade-shaped back cover of the MD-87.

First flight on August 15, 1987 and certified by the FAA four months later, on December 9, the MD-88 entered scheduled service with Delta on January 5, or just over 22 years after operating the first service of passenger transport in the world with the – 14 series on December 8, 1965. The extended DC-9-30 and the MD-82 had also operated.

III

The MD-80 number 1,000 was delivered on March 29, 1992 and, in December 1997, 1,150 of the type had been in service with 60 airlines worldwide. The design, partially achieved by its advanced and reconditioned MD-90 counterpart and Boeing's Next Generation 737 family after the manufacturer's acquisition of McDonnell-Douglas, however became its best-selling pure jet commercial aircraft, surpassing the sales of the DC-8, the Super DC-8, the DC-9 itself, the DC-10, the MD-11, the MD-90 and the MD-95/717, whose last delivery took place on the 21st of December 1999, when an MD-83 had been delivered to TWA, ending two decades of production. Combined with the 976 sales of the original short-body DC-9, it became the third best-selling twin aircraft after 737 of Boeing and the A-320 family of Airbus Industrie, with a total of 2,167 aircraft built.

The benefits of all-inclusive vacation packages

When traveling abroad for vacations or vacations, many travelers recently began choosing all-inclusive vacation packages as an alternative to paying each step of their trip piece by piece. All-inclusive packages can relieve travel pressures and concerns, and allow tourists to relax and enjoy their vacations.

Most all-inclusive packages provided by resorts, hotels, villas and travel providers include accommodation, meals, refreshments, tips, recreational activities and entertainment in the package price. Many include other activities, such as sports, tours and others. Some all-inclusive packages are designed for specific interests. For example, tours can be designed to serve adults, families, couples or business groups.

For the traveler who is worried about planning every meticulous detail of a vacation, the all-inclusive travel packages are a great way to escape the stress of the trip. In addition, guests can plan their expenses very accurately, since the price of the trip package rarely changes.

When buying an all-inclusive vacation package, it is worth thinking about the role the agency or resort plays in the local economy. Some larger tour operators have received criticism for diverting resources from the local tourism economy, by preventing tourism dollars from being spent on local businesses, while others play an active role in supporting the local economy.

A vacation getaway that has recently begun to grow in popularity is Sri Lanka, which is quickly becoming one of the most popular vacation destinations in the world. As the tourism industry recovers from the civil war, which ended in 2009, more and more all-inclusive vacation packages are available. For travelers looking for great value for their next vacation, in a destination a little off the beaten path, Sri Lanka can meet the requirements.

Badminton for physical education: what products can withstand punishment!

Badminton has been an old resource for physical education classes over the decades. Badminton, a fantastic sport that can be played by young people and adults alike, requires little equipment and offers exciting training that will improve the coordination and agility of the eyes and hands.

The physical education team carries a light and beating badminton racket, the little birds and the nets are not known for their ability to resist punishment.

While new racket materials, such as titanium compounds, have become more frequent, there are some standard models that are known to take a lickin and continue to stack. You understand!

This article will point to some models of badminton rackets on which physical education teachers have depended throughout the country. We will also discuss badminton flyers and badminton networks that will help you run your physical education program.

Badminton rackets:

While competitive badders around the world may be in the market for high-tech badminton rackets for physical education classes, you should have a material in mind: steel, steel, steel.

There is no substitute for good old steel. Steel shaft, steel frame and even steel ropes. Here are some popular models.

The Morley # M14539 badminton racket offers almost all the steel you can put in an unfinished racket with a giant spatula.

The Morley # M14540 does not feature steel strings, but it does not lack durability. The double steel shafts make this badminton racket come back for more, again and again.

The Morley # M14543 badminton racket is 2 inches shorter than a standard badminton racket. With a length of 24 inches, it is designed for younger elementary school badminton players. It also features a durable steel shaft and a steel frame.

Other models that are popular at the institutional level are the following.

Carlton Attack Ti, Carlton C9750, Carlton 313, ADA 76 Smack Excel, Yonex B460 and HL 110.

Some of these models have aluminum shafts and frames, but all these models have proven effective in the gym and are of great value. These high-end models are still available at affordable prices, which makes them a great buy for secondary level physical education classes, where durability can be a little less worrying and a better game racket is more important for Students can excel.

Badminton shuttlecocks and little birds

Here it gets a little complicated. While steel rackets are usually some of the least expensive and the best for physical education classes when it comes to flyers, the cheapest is not always the best. The less expensive flyers are made of plastic with a rubber tip and should only be considered for use in the backyard.

They do not offer the best flight characteristics, so they will actually make the game more difficult since the little bird seems to have its own mind in flight. However, they are a bargain, so you may want to have some on hand just in case.

The best models have a cork tip for better extraction of the racket and nylon skirts that work well.

As for speed, my advice is medium or blue speed, as it is practical for all age groups.

In colored sand, yellow has become increasingly popular among young people, as they are easier to track in flight.

My choice of flyers for PE would be one of these or a combination.

Carlton T800 Yellow Blue Speed

Carlton C100 White Blue Speed

Yonex Mavis M300M White or Yellow

All of the above is of high quality for great playability. They will jump off the ropes, fly in the direction you intended, assuming you know how to use the racket and that they are durable enough to survive physical education classes.

Badminton nets

Many school accounts buy our PE quality badminton networks or economic networks, which is fine, but if your network will be used indoors, I can suggest the M14563 institutional network. The difference, apart from a few dollars, is that the institutional model has sides and bottom with adhesive tape, while the less expensive models are net.

The sides and the bottom with adhesive tape make the network maintain its shape better for a more professional look and better playability, the tape also helps the network stand out more and the most important thing is that the sides and bottom With adhesive tape they make the net last longer and easier to roll up for storage. Believe me, the few extra dollars are worth it.

If you are using the network abroad, however, choose the cheapest model, this will face the best elements and give you more for your money.

This little tip should help you stretch your physical education team's budget.

Badminton is a fantastic sport and teaching it to our children in physical education classes will help develop healthy adults. The sport will improve coordination, balance and agility, in addition to building a healthy respect for competition.

Moving to Dallas, Texas

Moving to Dallas, Texas, is an exciting opportunity to live in one of the best cities in the country. With a population of 1.2 million people, Dallas is ranked the ninth largest city in the US. UU. And the number one destination for visitors and tourists in the state of Texas. His decision to move to Dallas, Texas, could not come at a better time. Despite the general state of the US economy. In the US, Dallas is experiencing a healthy and solid economy and moving to Dallas is a great way to escape the depressed local economies that many cities are experiencing.

Dallas is centrally located in the heart of the country and offers easy access to the east and west coast. When you move to Dallas, Texas, you will always be within a 3.5 hour flight to anywhere within the 48 states. You also get the benefit of having not only one of the world's largest international airports (Dallas Fort Worth International Airport), but it also has the base of operations and the central hub of the airline that consistently offers the lowest fairs and the highest level of customer service (Dallas Love Field – Southwest Airlines Headquarters).

Dallas also has a large number of commercial industries available to find work. Whether you're looking for something in technology, medical care, finance or entertainment, the Dallas job market has something to offer everyone.

The most important thing is that the people of Dallas are welcoming and friendly, which will undoubtedly make your move to Dallas easier and more enjoyable. What are you waiting for? Pack the boxes, call the engines and move to Dallas, Texas.

It's time to buy real estate in northern Sardinia!

Are you interested in properties in Sardinia? If so, pay close attention to the northern part of the island. Here you can still find good deals on properties in Sardinia at a reasonable price. With the current economy, real estate is not selling much, so this is a very good time to buy.

If you are looking for properties in Sardinia, northern Sardinia is very attractive. The largest province in Italy, Sassari, is located here. Sassari and Alghero are the main cities of the province in the northwest of Sardinia. In Sassari you can find good deals on houses near the sea and beautiful apartments in the city center. Alghero is very popular among those who buy property in Sardinia. It is located right on the seashore and is a very typical Mediterranean city, although with the local spirit of Sardinia. For a reasonable price, you can buy a villa in Alghero or a nice apartment with sea views. Another main province of northern Sardinia is Olbia-Tempio, northeast of the island of Sardinia. This province is famous for its glamorous Costa Smeralda. This area is popular with rich people interested in buying a villa in Sardinia. The villas in Porto Cervo and Porto Rotondo, the most famous areas of Costa Smeralda, belong to luxury properties in Sardinia.

When you are on your own property in Sardinia, you will hardly want to go anywhere else, but in case you decide to go to the mainland, there is a simple solution. There are two international airports and three ports in the north of the island that make it easy to reach the rest of the world. Special low-cost air fares and ferry tickets applied on the island make all your trips cheaper than from any other part of Europe. In addition to the good infrastructure and easy transport links, northern Sardinia is beautiful, you will enjoy its national parks and the unforgettable sea with some of the most beautiful beaches in the world.

When you buy a villa, a house or an apartment in the north of Sardinia, you, of course, buy a property in Italy, but at the same time you have the opportunity to enter a totally unique piece of paradise on earth with one of the Lower population density in Italy, with cleaner air and water, excellent food and original culture, combining local spirit, European quality and the warmth of Africa. At the same time, thanks to the excellent transport connections, all the charm of Europe with its historical and architectural attractions is so close. Ryanair airlines offer low-cost flights to many European capitals in the shortest possible time. Getting to the airport in northern Sardinia is a very short and pleasant trip because you will not find traffic. Check-in is done online. Flights to Sardinia to visit your apartment, villa or house is not a problem at all. If you want to travel in Europe by car, there are ferries at your service. On a ferry from northern Sardinia, you can go to several Italian regions (Liguria, Tuscany, Lazio, Campania) and France (Corsica Island and the mainland). You can travel to cities like Genoa (an hour and a half drive from Milan and two hours to Nice and Cannes), Livorno (ten minutes by car to Pisa and about an hour to Florence), Piombino, Civitavecchia (half an hour drive to Rome) , Naples, Marseille. Corsica is 30 minutes away. From there you can take another ferry to reach Toulon. Having a property in northern Sardinia means having the opportunity to travel through Europe at a very low price.

But most likely, as soon as you are at home in Sardinia, you don't want to go anywhere else. This island is really a paradise on earth!

The north of Sardinia offers an unlimited selection of real estate. Here you can buy an apartment with two bedrooms, living room and kitchen in an area with good infrastructure near the sea for a price that is approximately the price of a small one bedroom apartment in the suburbs of Moscow or London, for example. If you are interested in a luxury villa in Sardinia with a spectacular sea view, you will have to pay some money, but you will never regret this purchase. The beautiful seascapes, the excellent food, restaurants, bars, discos, beaches, etc., everything that makes northern Sardinia so attractive to the world elite, will be at your disposal.

So, he has decided to buy a property in Sardinia. What's next?

If you are familiar with Sardinia and local customs, speak Italian, have time to travel and are anxious to take care of all the transactions yourself, the best solution for you is, of course, to go to the owner of the property in Sardinia or to a Local real estate agency to skip any additional expenses!

But what if you want to buy a property in Sardinia, but you don't speak Italian (English-speaking Sardites are a rare occasion), you don't have time for multiple visits to Sardinia and there are many other obstacles in your path that don't allow you to Directly contact a local owner or real estate agency?

The first thing that comes to mind is, most likely, to contact the neighboring real estate agency in the area where you live. Such a decision will definitely save you time, but will limit your choice, your control and substantially increase the price of the agreement.

  1. Real estate agencies that operate anywhere other than Sardinia (in our case, northern Sardinia) only have those properties for sale that are beneficial to them. Your choice is seriously limited..
  2. Real estate agencies that operate anywhere other than Sardinia (in our case, northern Sardinia) give you all the information you need, but based on your interests, to get as much money as possible. Transparency of transactions and price determination remain in the shade. Your can't control the situation here unless you have someone you trust in Sardinia try it
  3. You pay for the services of a real estate agent of a selling party and a real estate agent of a buying party. Both parties wish to obtain a higher agreement price to obtain a better percentage. It becomes obvious that the overpayment Buying a property in Sardinia, in this case, it is quite substantial

What other solutions can be found in this situation?

The best solution is to find someone local you can trust because once you have a house in Sardinia you will want someone you trust to take care of it.

Avionics jobs can be the smartest career choice in aviation

So, are you considering going on a path in the field of avionics work? Well, I will tell you immediately that a career in avionics is an extremely intelligent choice for many reasons, which I will cover in a moment.

But first I want you to consider this:

Increase in unemployment. National foreclosure crisis. Bank failures Higher taxes

Four crises in the world economy and, as I write this article, none of these problems will improve soon.

Now I don't want to sound too negative here, but I want to be realistic. The jobs are difficult enough to arrive now, and it seems that things will only get worse. It will be vital for people looking for work and / or career to find a job that is not only highly requested, but also pays well, has good benefits and has the power to remain at work.

After all, what good is breaking the queue to find a good job just to make that position disappear in a year, or even before?

Why a career in the field of avionics work is a really good move

In the first place, what exactly is avionics? For the sake of not being too technical, a simple definition would be:

"Avionics, a term derived from the combination of aviation and electronics, describes all the electronic navigation, communications and flight management aids that airplanes are equipped with today."

A person in the field of avionics is responsible for anything electronic within an aircraft. Some related disciplines in the field of avionics work would be:

Avionics (or aviation) technician: they are responsible for examining and inspecting the aircraft computer and electronic systems, as well as maintaining these systems.

Aerospace engineer: they will test the aircraft components as applied to the flight. They will work in navigation systems, research of those and related systems and will work extensively in commercial aircraft research.

Electrical engineer: they test and develop engines, propulsion and similar power systems.

Grades and payment in this field begin where an initial level Avionics Technician will generally start earning around $ 18 per hour and can increase his pay (with experience in the field of work) up to $ 30 per hour.

Avionics engineers can earn up to $ 100,000 a year for the best technicians in their field.

The educational requirements begin at 3-4 years for a technician, and a 4-year degree (and sometimes a master's degree) for an engineer.

Another very important facet in the Avionics Jobs sector is occupational safety. Of course, there are layoffs in aviation, and we read about them all the time. However, the aviation industry is very fluid with outsourcing that occur literally all the time.

Add the fact that the avionics and airline industry is one that must continue to operate even in bad times, even if that means the government must intervene to provide financial assistance to keep it running.

Another important reason to consider aviation work is the military component. Aviation is one of the greatest weapons of the military and must have a huge fleet of aircraft that must be maintained to the highest standards. The army constantly hires new aviation workers.

The Boeing 717

ME.

Following its lineage until the DC-9, the MD-80 and the MD-90, the Boeing 717, which had initially been designated as the MD-95, had been the last purely McDonnell-Douglas aircraft and the first and only in been transferred to Boeing to continue production.

Conceived as an advanced, low-wing, 100-passenger airliner with two high-ratio bypass turbofan mounted on the stern and a T-tail more closely based on the MD-90, its immediate predecessor, the design, designed to high frequency, However, short to medium range routes had inherently incorporated the 40-year development story of their previous generation family. Having carried the three names of Douglas manufacturer, McDonnell-Douglas and Boeing, the basic fuselage had presented three wings; three motor cores: Pratt and Whitney JT8D, International Aero Engine V2500 and BMW Rolls Royce BR715; a wide range of thrust capacities, from 12,000 to 25,000 pounds; four basic designations: DC-9, MD-80, MD-90 and MD-95/717; passenger capacities that vary between 90 and 180 in single class arrangements; and eight fuselage lengths, such as DC-9-10, DC-9-30, DC-9-40, DC-9-50, MD-80, MD-87, MD-90 and 717

Designed as a next-generation DC-9-30 replacement, numerically the most popular DC-9 version with 662 that was sold, the originally designated MD-95 has a total length of 124 feet, which is 1.7 feet shorter than that of the DC-9-40, which allows a complement of 106 passengers in a first-class four-seat, two, two, with a 36-inch seat and an economical five-seat, two, three, 32-inch pitch of the seat. One hundred and seventeen can be accommodated alternately in a single class configuration and five a day. Two warehouses under the floor facilitate the storage of luggage, cargo and mail.

The cabin for two people of last generation is equipped with six interchangeable units of liquid crystal display (LCD), an electronic instrument system (EIS), a dual flight management system (FMS), a fault display system control (CFDS)), and an advanced Honeywell VIA 2000 computer, and is capable of category IIIA landings, with provision for minimum minimum IIIB operations.

Its all-metal wing with two stringers, like that of the previous DC-9, MD-80 and MD-90, features five-section, double-position, full-range front edge slats; two section spoilers; three section flaps, double groove, trailing edge; and manually operated ailerons, connected by cable, operated differentially in flight for swing and swing control. The wings, with a wingspan of 93.4 feet, are swept 24 degrees for a maximum speed of Mach 0.82.

The T-tail, positioned high above the motors, eliminates engine thrust interference with its horizontal surfaces, whose elevators are connected by cable and operated manually, while the vertical stabilizer rudder is deflected hydraulically with an adjustment of cable flight The tail surfaces of the MD-95/717 employ thicker skins than those of the previous MD-80 or MD-90.

Powered by two BMW Rolls Royce BR715-A1-30 high-aft bypass turbofans, each with a thrust power of 18,500 pounds, the plane, completely free of the engine installation on its wings, generates the maximum wing lift for optimal performance. Based on the single core BR700, the BR715 features a two stage high pressure turbine; a 58-inch fan chamber; single crystal turbine fan blades; the largest combined blade and disc (blisk) ever used by a commercial power plant; and is equipped with thrust inverter. The 6,155-pound 19-foot-long engine, the third basic type that powered the DC-9 family, had run for the first time on April 28, 1997, almost reaching 26,000 pounds of thrust at this time. It is the only power plant of the MD-95.

The plane sits on a hydraulically driven double wheel tricycle undercarriage.

On October 19, 1995, ValuJet, an operator of DC-9 and MD-80, and the prototype, an ex-Oriental, had placed the launch order for the initially designated MD-95-30, consisting of 50 orders in Firm and 50 options. The DC-9-30 airlines modified to the MD-95 standard and registered N717XA, were launched three years later, on June 10, 1998, for the first time to the heavens on September 2. The plane, reflecting the previous Boeing The acquisition for one year of McDonnell-Douglas and its 7-dash-7 number scheme, had been redesigned "717", a nomenclature shared by Boeing's own KC-135A Stratotanker, the military derivative of 707.

The first production aircraft, registered N717XD, was first launched on January 23, 1999, and the type received its joint FAA and JAA certification nine months later, on September 1, after a 2,000 flight test program hours that included 1,900 individual departures and five cells.

The first aircraft, the N942AT, had been delivered to new-brand AirTran Airways, so far a 737 operator, which ValuJet had acquired intermittently, on September 23, and had been inaugurated in service the following month on the Atlanta- route Washington.

The 717-200, the initial and unique version, had been offered with basic and high gross weight options. The first, with 110,000 pounds, has a range of 1,430 nautical miles with a fuel capacity of 24,609 US gallons, while the last, with 121,000 pounds, has a range of 2,060 nautical miles with a fuel capacity of 29,500 US gallons, but it reduces the space under the floor due to the additional tank and requires the improved BR715-C1-30 engine of 21,0000 pounds of thrust.

The maximum certified altitude of the aircraft is 37,000 feet.

II

A triangular three-sector flight with AirTran Airways, from New York / La Guardia to Akron, Ohio; Atlanta Georgia; and back to New York, it is indicative of the mission for which 717 had been designed.
After a brigade of "mini-jets" of Canadair and Embraer, but reflected by the American MD-82 of "big brother" with long fuses and the identical AirTran 717-200 bound for Atlanta, immediately in front of him, 717 , which operates as Flight 202 and registered N926AT, crossed the arrivals runway, 4-22, before maneuvering towards the departure strip, Runway 13. Slightly loaded, with only about 20 passengers on board, the twin-engined T-tail aircraft He raised his main wheels. the concrete and was trimmed at a steep, initial ascent angle, putting its tricycle undercarriage in the air of 55 degrees, like a spring.

Overcoming the geometries of the Queens house and closing the gap with the opaque film of fine clouds like paper, Flight 202 leaned to the left of the Throgs Neck Bridge over the deep blue of Flushing Bay. Accelerating to rise in power, he leaned further to the left.

The island of Manhattan, which appears beyond the tip of the left wing in the form of a miniature and appears to float between Hudson and East Rivers, triumphantly projected its tall, thin buildings like spiers through the low, floating fog as victorious bulwarks of man & # 39; s architectural warfare. Beyond the Verrazano-Narrows bridge, the gateway to the Atlantic, the sun transformed the water into a reflection of copper crystal.

Now assuming a shallow and barely noticeable angle of ascent, 717, the latest evolution of DC-9, crossed the eastern fringes of the Allegheny Mountains, which looked like black waves and sketched in coal at 35,000 feet below.

Aided by the speed brake panels of the upper wing surface barely raised, the twin-engine aircraft began a shallow descent about 40 minutes later under layers of dirty white and gray clouds, indicative of January, towards the eastern farm patterns from Ohio, hitting through a light punch. .

The perpendicular runways of the Akron-Canton airport moved forward and to the left. Extending its leading edge slats, which produced significant resistance, Flight 202 completed its landing gear flutter sequence and the trailing edge, forming an arc on the final left bank of the approach course. Brushing the bare farm patches, lined with brown trees in the motor configuration that counteracts the resistance, the 717-200 exploded beyond the threshold of the track and slid sideways in an abrupt, crosswind contact.

After rolling through the circular brick terminal Akron-Canton, in which four United Express, US Airways Express and Delta Connection ERJ-135 and CRJ-200 had been discovered, the plane, the largest on the ramp, left its engines without stern mounted engines. of fuel, which fell silently, replaced by the sound of the jet bridge that extended to the front left passenger door.

Pushed back from the door in 1215, the AirTran 717, which now operates nonstop to Atlanta as flight 202, proposed its unobstructed taxi at the Akron-Canton regional airport and received immediate take-off authorization on runway 19. At disconnecting from the ground, the plane, with a considerable complement of passengers, withdrew its landing gear with a slight blow and climbed onto the patchwork quilt of Ohio farmland, which then gave way to gentle hills. With altitude, these were completely reduced to indistinguishable darkness.

Emerging from a white cloud that covered the green undulating topography of West Virginia and Kentucky at 37,000 feet, the twin-engine T-tail plane was parallel to the cotton nimbus line that had been tied along the east coast.

The chocolate brown ridges of the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina rose like solid waves that had petrified in their peaks and failed to descend back to the sea.

The speed brakes on the upper wing surface induced 717 in a rapid descent over Georgia to swollen and white snow banks, its bullet nose piercing the surrounding darkness like a penetrating missile. When performing banking operations on its longitudinal axis, it initiated a series of arrival aircraft that spaced S-turns, shaken by the disturbance of the air associated with the cloud, while the acceleration of the accelerator resulted in a series of periodic airspeak oscillations: As the airspeed took off, the engines were significantly wound, followed by a frequency of speed deterioration, before the process had been repeated.

The plane emerged from the cloud islands on the green and brown blanket of Georgia. The skyscrapers of Atlanta, although still in the form of miniature, appeared in sight from the left wing.

Extending your tricycle undercarriage in the gliding stream and raising your wings & # 39; The rope of the upper surface and the area at its maximum with the full path of the flap of the trailing edge, the 717 made a final left bank towards Track 28 in the pure blue skies of 68 degrees dotted with cotton lint suspended from sugar. Parallel to the left, with a Delta 757-200 and an ASA CRJ-100 approaching the 27-left and right runways, the pure T-tail jet crossed the threshold, lowering its engines for the last time, which profiled it for a flare, and crouched on the concrete with its main "rear legs" of the landing gear, which absorbed contact with a minimal protest.

The return flight, which operated nonstop, had occurred later than night.

An avalanche of points of light, which represents the final approach to the Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport on that dark January afternoon, seemed to compete, at competitive speed, for the 27-left and right tracks, towards which the AirTran 717 -200, operating as flight 343 from gate C-12 to New York-La Guardia, currently taxed. Turning to the threshold to the right of the two parallel stripes, it accelerated in an acceleration roller that punctured the engine and, thanks to its horizontal stabilizers, generated a sufficient elevation to disengage from the Georgian soil and dive into the dive. , low cloud.

Withdrawing his landing gear, he stripped the darkness. The thin horizontal strata of fog made the orange lights of the ground become ethereal, a silenced attempt, only partially successful, to penetrate the veil from the "other side."

Separating from civilization, the twin plane was installed on its 35,000-foot autonomous plateau, from which it could see, but not touch, the world, in miniature, below. Curling on the east coast, it flew over Greenville / Spartanburg, South Carolina; Greensboro, North Carolina; and Richmond, Virginia, represented by their respective spots of ground light, "spills" of iridescent paint that had been thrown on the black canvas of the earth without form or foresight.

Directed, according to its flight plan, east of Washington and Philadelphia, flight 343, an autonomous and illuminated world that pursues its invisible path in the darkness of January, followed the coast of New Jersey.

Extensions of slats of the leading edge, which allowed the air velocity to bleed, occurred 40 miles from the airport. The Guard is approaching, to Track 22, it would take the plane north before it could become final.

Trapped momentarily in the black void and without references between the top of New York Bay and the night sky, the plane passed to the right of the small Statue of Liberty and the illuminated and bright sculptures of Manhattan Island, more beyond which the perpendicular airstrip … stamped field of La Guardia rolled up.

Following, precisely, the pattern of aircraft approach lights, the 717 leaned over the black reflective surface of Long Island Sound beyond the green light Throgs Neck and Whitestone bridges.

Executing a long and final approach over the Connecticut coast at a speed of 132 knots, the double jet untied its landing gear and extracted the last amount of elevation obtainable from its wings backwards with full drag edge fin extensions, a contradictory maneuver that created as much resistance as it rose and could only be really countered with greater engine power.

Leaning toward Flushing Bay with his nose, he passed over the pier that supported the threshold of Track 22 and exploded in the headwind, snatching the concrete again with its main wheels and unleashing its spoilers and thrust inverters in a simultaneous explosion. An American 737-800, which had preceded its landing, had just turned towards the parallel taxiway.

III

On May 23, 2006, during a ceremony attended by thousands, Boeing had deployed the last two 717 orders by Midwest and AirTran Airways, marking the final deliveries of the design, the last McDonnell-Douglas commercial aircraft and the closure of its historic Long Beach production facilities.

Founded by Donald W. Douglas, Douglas Aircraft Company had flown its first aircraft, the "Cloudster", in 1921, and had opened its Long Beach facilities in 1941, on the eve of World War II, when the demand had overshadowed the capacity in his country. existing plants in Santa Monica and El Segundo, California. Douglas's first commercial design, the DC-1, had been built here and sold to Transcontinental and Western Air (TWA), becoming the precursor to a long line of increasingly advanced piston aircraft that had introduced the world into flights commercial.

When merging with McDonnell Company in 1967, Douglas Aircraft Company was renamed McDonnell-Douglas, its products comprise the commercial division of the new corporation and, 30 years later, when Boeing acquired McDonnell-Douglas, it became the Douglas Products Division. Finally, it had been designated as the Long Beach Division of Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

During its more than 65 years of history, the Long Beach factory had produced some 10,000 military aircraft during World War II and 15,000 military and commercial design aircraft in general, while all its locations had produced more than 65,000 aircraft.

Despite the most efficient and cost-effective final assembly techniques designed by Boeing, the 717 could not remain competitive, partly due to sales conflicts with its own 737-600. However, the 156,717 produced, along with the previous generation 976 DC-9, 1,191 MD-80 and 114 MD-90, had already provided nearly half a century of robust, reliable and economical service worldwide, and seemed to be likely to do so in the coming years.

Hertz Car Rental Overview of the company's history, vehicle collection, services and policies

If you want convenience and reliability with a vehicle on your next vacation or business trip, it is a good idea to start with Hertz. The company started in 1918 when it offered some Ford Model T for rent. Today, Hertz car rental is a world leader in the travel and tourism industry. It operates in more than 150 countries worldwide.

The vehicles are divided into a variety of categories, such as the Green Collection, which consists of ecological, hybrid and electric vehicles from Toyota, Nissan, Volkswagen, etc. If you want a hot rod from Ford or Chevy, perhaps the Adrenaline Collection has what you're looking for. Do you travel with children or a group of friends? You can book a rental of SUV or mini-van. There are also many affordable economic cars if you just want the basic one.

As with any car rental company, Hertz cannot offer a 100% guarantee that you will get the exact model you are looking for, due to supply and demand. However, representatives will still try to meet your needs as much as possible. Special services are available to help the disabled. In all corporate locations, customers can book a car with manual controls at no additional charge.

There is a pick-up and drop-off location for Hertz car rental right at or very close to most airports. In general, it is easy to get to locations outside the airport by shuttle bus. This company offers a Best Rate Guarantee, which applies only to the "base rate" and does not include surcharges, fuel, taxes, etc.

Hertz car rental for young drivers
Hertz offers rentals for drivers between 20 and 24 years old, although in some circumstances there is a surcharge. The fare is determined based on the location and type of vehicle.

Express return services allow customers to simply leave their vehicle when the rental period ends. This is a good service to take advantage of if you ever have little time and need to hurry to take your flight. All you have to do is park the car in Hertz's parking lot, leave the keys inside and get out.

There are three options for refueling: prepaid, refueling and refueling the company. With the prepaid option, you will not have to refill the car before returning it. However, you will not receive a refund for any fuel you have not used.

Before making your travel reservation, check Hertz car rental coupons that can be used online.

It is better to use Hertz car rental promotion codes online, where you can get the most value for your money. Use the site to browse all available rentals in cities around the world. No matter where you want to go, there will surely be an affordable Hertz car waiting for you.

Why the value of FIAT money will always go to zero

Paper money today is fiat money. Since 1971, real assets have not backed the dollars that Americans spend. Paper dollars have value for government fiat: the government has declared that these printed dollars are legal money.

Due to the solid economic history of the United States, the dollar continues to perceive value in the United States and throughout the world. However, that strong story is becoming more distant both in time and in reality. For many reasons, fiat dollars become less and less valuable and, by the time people realize this, it may be too late to do something about it.

A brief history of fiat money

The official money in ancient Rome was the denarius. In 50 AD, the denarius was a pure silver coin, the emperors gradually reduced the silver content until the denarius contained less than 0.05% silver. When Rome collapsed, the denarius was unacceptable in exchange for goods and services. China used worthless paper as currency around the eleventh century.

The currency had value while China expanded its empire, population and trade surplus. When these declined, the money supply continued to increase, which quickly destroyed the economy and peace.

In France, an attempt to issue paper backed by currencies ended after excessive increases in the money supply and people were unable to exchange their paper notes now worthless of coins. In a more recent attempt, the inflated paper franc lost 99% of its value in 12 years. The Weimar Republic of Germany after World War I was charged with severe repairs on its part in World War I. He printed more and more useless paper money to pay off his debt.

Why fiat money always decreases to zero value

No government has been able to discipline its monetary policy. History has shown that fiat currency makes it easier for any government …

  • increase the money supply through loans
  • increase the money supply simply by printing,
  • increase spending: the deficit deficit particularly harmful,
  • attach burdensome regulations to the money you spend, and
  • Expand your control of society and business.

Some reasons (called emergencies but are really excuses) for these dangerous economic decisions are:

  • financing a war,
  • facing a natural disaster,
  • responding to the shortage of an energy or food product,
  • the widespread greed of government officials to gain additional money, power and influence,
  • an economic recession, even a cyclical recession, and
  • an economic crisis, as in 2008, that threatened the entire monetary system.

Some of the consequences of undisciplined government actions with fiat money have been:

  • a growing national debt with its interest burden,
  • difficulty finding organizations or nations to buy the growing debt,
  • inflation, or even hyperinflation,
  • the decrease in the purchasing power of savings,
  • decreased consumer confidence,
  • a movement to exchange fiat currency for assets that have real value, such as gold or property,
  • a growing dependence on government payments,
  • less space for businesses to benefit and grow as government activity expands,
  • a decreasing tax base,
  • government breach of its obligations such as pensions or rights,
  • civil unrest, and ultimately
  • A change of government or monetary system.

The United States movement to fiat money

Until the great depression, the United States was in the gold standard and dollar bills could be exchanged for gold. In 1933, the dollar was devalued, but it was still backed by gold. With this gold backing and a strong economy, the US dollar was accepted as the world reserve currency after World War II.

The economies of most countries involved in World War II were in ruins. However, deficit spending during the Vietnam War caused nations to redeem their weakened dollars. With the increasing depletion of the US gold supply, President Nixon ended the dollar's gold support in 1971.

President Nixon's action turned the US dollar into fiat money that in itself is worthless and is not backed by real value assets. At the same time, all world currencies that had been linked to the US dollar since 1945 also became fiat money.

However, in 2010, because the United States economy had remained relatively strong, the dollar remains the world's leading reserve currency. Global products such as oil and gold are priced in US dollars. While the euro had strengthened to become an alternative reserve currency, recent problems in several European economies caused many to sell euros and buy US dollars along with gold and other real assets. The situation in Europe has stabilized at the moment and the euro is rising again.

The growing weakness of the US economy

However, the key position of the dollar in the global economy is increasingly questioned. There are good reasons to question the value and strength of the dollar. The United States government is guilty of all actions that make fiat money worthless, and the United States economy has experienced almost all the consequences mentioned above. Current policy only increases these effects and puts the US economy at greater risk. Some current and very serious dangers facing the United States economy are:

  1. Continuous deficit spending. Since the economic crisis of 2008, US budget deficits have tripled and are expected to remain for more than a billion dollars for many years.
  2. Increase in the money supply. There are more dollars and fewer purchases in a recession; There are too many US dollars and their value is necessarily falling. Many of these additional dollars actually belong to countries that buy our debt, such as China and Japan. Possibly, other dollars are simply printed, such an addition to the supply would immediately devalue our money.
  3. Increase in national debt: since the economic crisis of 2008, the national debt has grown by more than 3 billion, more than 30% in 2 years. Unsustainable, but no leveling in sight.
  4. Higher interest rates: Since interest rates have been at record lows, the cost of borrowing so much money has been relatively low. Higher interest rates could make a broken budget not fixable.
  5. Pension rights and commitments. The long-term obligations of the US economy. UU. Now they exceed 100 billion dollars. It is impossible to find so much extra money with 4 billion dollars of deficit spending every day. This is also unsustainable.
  6. Inflation. The dollars will not buy so much. Consumers with liquidity problems would need to reduce spending further. And companies that need customers would face higher costs and need to increase prices while courting customers who need lower prices. Inflation will weaken both the US dollar and the US economy.
  7. Flight from the United States. More companies and dollars are leaving an increasingly hostile business and tax environment for the friendliest hosts. This further weakens the US economy.

These risks could spiral down and worsen dramatically. In addition, other dangers that the US economy may face are:

  1. Countries that sell dollars. Many countries have kept dollars in reserve and many countries have bought parts of the $ 13 billion debt. How much weakness in the dollar or the US economy will cause the massive sale of dollars?
  2. Serious terrorist attack. God forbid this from happening, but such an event will create a fear that could trigger drastic "emergency" actions, such as the sale of coins for gold and other assets. This could destroy the fragile US dollar or other fragile currencies and economies.
  3. Breach of another national currency. This would negatively impact credit, commerce and international corporations, creating fear again and putting additional pressure on the economy of the United States.

Greece almost failed to comply with its obligations, a situation that caused all of Europe to stir. Fears that its breach could overthrow the precarious economies of Portugal, Spain and Ireland encouraged the world to lend money to Greece and give it time to correct its problems.

How long? More debt for Greece is an additional long-term burden. Can you solve your problems amid violent riots? What about other countries on the brink of disaster? Which one can (almost) default later? If these smaller economies fall, the largest economies in France, England and Germany will also be at serious risk.

Global impact if the fiat dollar ceases to have value

World economies are connected and many will fall if the US dollar ceases to have value. Countries that have reserves in US dollars will weaken. Even if some creditor nations with vibrant economies can maintain value in their currency, the impact of the dollar's decline will be severe.

The world needs the United States to be strong and buy its products. For example, China can resist the loss of its US dollars and its debt, but if the United States cannot afford to buy its products, at best, a large number of Chinese factories and businesses will close.

It does not matter if the fall of the US dollar precipitates the global economic collapse or if the collapse begins in other parts of the world. Many national economies are on the verge of default or collapse and could fall rapidly. However, in the face of these concerns, governments still seem to be lending and spending, increasing debt and deficit, the same actions that have brought the world to the edge of the precipice.

Travel insurance policy: is it really useful for us?

Travel insurance these days has become a crucial part of trip planning. Just because many people go to increasingly remote destinations and participate in adventure trips, the insurance plan has become a useful requirement for them. Insurance policies offer ample options, and are more complicated than ever. Medical coverage, a wide range of hospital networks, emergency evacuation, medical escorts and much more are some of the advantages of having a comprehensive travel insurance plan. It can be part of the travel insurance policy mainly if you buy from a popular insurance company.

If you embark on an exotic destination, you will most likely encounter some unpleasant situation, such as medical requirements, loss of belongings, cancellation of flights, unforeseen accidents and much more. A travel insurance policy is designed to help a traveler deal with all these problems. Here is how.

On the one hand, a travel insurance policy with medical benefits helps the insured to cover it for any unexpected medical treatment. Whether it is an accident or illness that occurs throughout the trip in a foreign country, a travel policy is of great benefit. The policies cover charges for medications and dental items purchased abroad.

On the other hand, in case you or your friend with whom you are traveling encounters a serious accident and needs a quick medical action, you will usually have to pay in advance before performing any treatment, even if it is an urgent situation. To support this situation, the insurance plan is designed to cover these charges that they require in advance. Therefore, the policy strengthens you financially and allows you to have the right treatment at the right time, regardless of where you are.

In addition to medical help, a travel insurance plan also covers the cancellation of the flight, that is, you will receive a refund if you cannot travel due to bad weather, the death of someone in your family or the cancellation of the flight. In addition, the best insurance plan covers the following: medical expenses, transportation, daily hospital allowance, total loss of luggage, including luggage delay, allowance for kidnapping, passport loss, emergency financial assistance coverage, liability personal and personal accident.

The good news is that a reputable insurer provides assistance to its clients 24 hours a day in case of any emergency when they are abroad and seek help.

Point

When you check your travel insurance, you should make sure if international travel is considered "out of network", if so, at what rate will you be reimbursed. When evaluating a potential insurer, start with some basic questions, as if I encounter a problem, how can I access the help? Where would you get attention in an emergency situation? Do you have a network of hospitals? In which countries do you help me? Can you name some of your network hospitals?

Before buying a policy, it is also necessary to compare plans and premium rates for various policies. Many companies are there to offer free quotes to customers. Find such companies and compete their quotes. Once you find one that suits your needs, you can buy the policy.